Publications Referencing Agile

Novel Graphene-based Biosensor for Early Detection of Zika Virus Infection

Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2017.

The compact and portable Agile R100 uses an immobilized monoclonal antibody developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to detect Zika virus antigen in serum. The LLOD and specificity demonstrated provide an opportunity for early stage detection.

FEB Increases Signal-to-Noise by 10 Times versus BLI and ELISA

MRS Advances, 2017.

Agile R100, a Field Effect Biosensing (FEB) system, detected Zika viral antigen at a concentration 10 times lower than on a BLI system in this breakthrough study. The platform also lowered the limit of detection by 10 times versus an ELISA for inflammatory protein IL-6.

Correcting Mitochondrial Fusion By Manipulating Mitofusin Conformations

Nature, 2016.

In this joint publication by researchers from the Washington University School of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and Stanford University School of Medicine, Agile R100 provided sensitive in vitro kinetic binding data that supports the model of positive cooperativity of two therapeutic minipeptides engineered by the researchers.

Engineered Substrate-Specific Delta PKC Antagonists to Enhance Cardiac Therapeutics

Angewandte Chemie, 2016.

Delta protein kinase C (dPKC) is an enzyme involved with many signal transduction pathways, playing an important role in cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and heart disease.  Nir Qvit leads a study seeking to create a peptide based drug to prevent heart damage related to dPKC.  To do this, they have performed a structure-activity-relationship study with a set of designed peptides.  The peptides were tested for binding affinity using the Agile R100 system, and were tested for efficacy in cell culture and animal tissue. The researchers show significant protection of cardiac tissue using their rationally designed peptides.

A key element of the study was being able to measure binding affinities of the peptide to dPKC. Using Agile R100, the researchers were able to show that different peptides were binding to different regions of dPKC, thus explaining the different biological effects of the tested peptides. The end result is a highly specific, highly potent peptide inhibitor for protein-protein interactions between dPKC and substrate proteins as well as demonstration of an exciting, generalizable approach for creation of peptide therapeutics.

Large Scale Commercial Fabrication of High Quality Graphene-Based Assays for Biomolecule Detection

Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical, 2016.

Enzyme-protein and antibody-antigen binding experiments performed with Agile R100 shown in this peer-reviewed paper demonstrate sensitivity down to pM levels, detection in complex media such as serum, and alignment with published equilibrium dissociation constants.

Selective Phosphorylation Inhibitor of Delta Protein Kinase C–Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Protein–Protein Interactions: Application for Myocardial Injury in Vivo

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2016.

This paper describes the use of Agile R100 to gain in vitro kinetic binding measurements between a peptide inhibitor and a kinase enzyme for the treatment of chronic heart disease. The measurements had not been able to be attained using traditional methods due to the instability of the protein kinase.

Publications Describing FEB Technology

Detection of Individual Gas Molecules Absorbed On Graphene

Nature Materials, 2007.

Over 4,500 citations of this seminal paper on graphene sensors.

Nanowire Nanosensors for Highly Sensitive and Selective Detection of Biological and Chemical Species

Science, 2001.

Over 5,500 citations of this paper describing highly sensitive, real-time electrically based sensors.

Noncovalent Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes for Highly Specific Electronic Biosensors

PNAS, 2002.

Over 1400 citations of this paper presenting a single-walled carbon nanotube as a platform for investigating surface-protein and protein-protein binding and developing highly specific electronic biomolecule detectors.

Electrolyte-Gated Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for Detecting pH and Protein Adsorption

Nano Letters, 2009.

Over 500 citations of this paper investigating electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) for electrical pH sensing.

Additional Relevant Publications

Real-Time Label-Free Direct Electronic Monitoring of Topoisomerase Enzyme Binding Kinetics on Graphene

American Chemical Society Nano, 2015.

Using an enzyme linked to monolayer graphene strips, the authors present a method for studying real-time detection of binding kinetics and enzyme-substrate activity down to picomolar concentrations.

Single-Molecule Lysozyme Dynamics Monitored by an Electronic Circuit

Science, 2012.

Carbon nanotube transistor covalently attached to a lysozyme enzyme for electronic monitoring of substrate binding over long periods of time.

Graphene Transistors with Multifunctional Polymer Brushes for Biosensing Applications

American Chemical Society Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2014.

Graphene transistor functionalized with acetylcholinesterase to detect the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in real time.

Scalable Production of Highly Sensitive Nanosensors Based on Graphene Functionalized with a Designed G Protein-Coupled Receptor

American Chemical Society Nano Letters, 2014.

A graphene-based sensor for opioids using a transistor functionalized with an opioid receptor, and example of how these transistors can be used to study any G protein-coupled receptor.

Graphene and Nanowire Transistors for Cellular Interfaces and Electrical Recording

American Chemical Society Nano Letters, 2010.

Real time measurement of spontaneously beating embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes yields well-defined extracellular signals with high signal-to-noise ratio.

Origin of Enhanced Stem Cell Growth and Differentiation on Graphene and Graphene Oxide

American Chemical Society Nano, 2011.

Accelerating differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells by using graphene as a preconcentration platform for osteogenic inducers. Additionally, natural properties of graphene help to suppress or activate different cell lineage pathways.

The Control of Neural Cell-to-Cell Interactions Through Non-contact Electrical Field Stimulation Using Graphene Electrodes

Biomaterials, 2011.

This paper demonstrates control of neural intercellular connections using non-cytotoxic graphene electrical contacts.