Publications Referencing Agile R100

Graphene-based Biosensor for On-chip Detection of Bio-orthogonally Labeled Proteins to Identify the Circulating Biomarkers of Aging

Lab on a Chip, 2018.

In this publication, the Keck Graduate Institute (KGI) at Claremont Colleges uses the Agile R100 graphene biosensor to develop a lab-on-a-chip with reduced sample size, complexity, cost, and time as compared to optical assays and mass spectrometry.

Synthetic Molecules for Disruption of the MYC Protein-Protein Interface

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2018.

In this paper, the authors found that Agile R100 successfully characterized MYC better than surface plasmon resonance (SPR) due to 1) A much lower limit of detection as compared with SPR or isothermal calorimetry (ITC), 2) Agile R100’s graphene surface which reduces non-specific binding with MYC as compared to a dextran surface, 3) The ability to avoid aggregation of target during immobilization due to the low concentration binding surface of the Agile biosensor.

Novel Graphene-based Biosensor for Early Detection of Zika Virus Infection

Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2017.

The compact and portable Agile R100 uses an immobilized monoclonal antibody developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to detect Zika virus antigen in serum. The LLOD and specificity demonstrated provide an opportunity for early stage detection.

FEB Increases Signal-to-Noise by 10 Times versus BLI and ELISA

MRS Advances, 2017.

Agile R100, a Field Effect Biosensing (FEB) system, detected Zika viral antigen at a concentration 10 times lower than on a BLI system in this breakthrough study. The platform also lowered the limit of detection by 10 times versus an ELISA for inflammatory protein IL-6.

Correcting Mitochondrial Fusion By Manipulating Mitofusin Conformations

Nature, 2016.

In this joint publication by researchers from the Washington University School of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and Stanford University School of Medicine, Agile R100 provided sensitive in vitro kinetic binding data that supports the model of positive cooperativity of two therapeutic minipeptides engineered by the researchers.

Engineered Substrate-Specific Delta PKC Antagonists to Enhance Cardiac Therapeutics

Angewandte Chemie, 2016.

Delta protein kinase C (dPKC) is an enzyme involved with many signal transduction pathways, playing an important role in cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and heart disease.  Nir Qvit leads a study seeking to create a peptide based drug to prevent heart damage related to dPKC.  To do this, they have performed a structure-activity-relationship study with a set of designed peptides.  The peptides were tested for binding affinity using the Agile R100 system, and were tested for efficacy in cell culture and animal tissue. The researchers show significant protection of cardiac tissue using their rationally designed peptides.

A key element of the study was being able to measure binding affinities of the peptide to dPKC. Using Agile R100, the researchers were able to show that different peptides were binding to different regions of dPKC, thus explaining the different biological effects of the tested peptides. The end result is a highly specific, highly potent peptide inhibitor for protein-protein interactions between dPKC and substrate proteins as well as demonstration of an exciting, generalizable approach for creation of peptide therapeutics.

Large Scale Commercial Fabrication of High Quality Graphene-Based Assays for Biomolecule Detection

Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical, 2016.

Enzyme-protein and antibody-antigen binding experiments performed with Agile R100 shown in this peer-reviewed paper demonstrate sensitivity down to pM levels, detection in complex media such as serum, and alignment with published equilibrium dissociation constants.

Selective Phosphorylation Inhibitor of Delta Protein Kinase C–Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Protein–Protein Interactions: Application for Myocardial Injury in Vivo

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2016.

This paper describes the use of Agile R100 to gain in vitro kinetic binding measurements between a peptide inhibitor and a kinase enzyme for the treatment of chronic heart disease. The measurements had not been able to be attained using traditional methods due to the instability of the protein kinase.

Publications About Graphene Biosensors

Versatile Graphene Biosensors for Enhancing Human Cell Therapy

Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2018.

Cell-based therapy requires extensive preclinical characterization of biomarkers indicating mechanisms of action crucial to the desired therapeutic effect, and the challenge to achieve high-quality measurement is increasingly met by progress in biosensor design. A commercially-available graphene field effect transistor (G-FET) biosensing chip, the Agile R100, has been reported to robustly measure clinically-relevant target molecules (peptides, proteins, antibodies) in real time for dynamic pM level characterization in complex media.

ZIKA: A New System to Empower Health Workers and Local Communities to Improve Surveillance Protocols by E-learning and to Forecast Zika

Digital Health Conference, 2018.

The devastating consequences of neonates infected with the Zika virus makes it necessary to fight and stop the spread of this virus. An essential part of the fight is the use of mobile technology to support routine surveillance by health workers. A cost-effective and portable graphene-enabled biosensor such as Agile R100 is proposed to improve the turnaround time in confirming ZIKV cases.

Graphene as Biomedical Sensing Element: State of Art Review and Potential Engineering Applications

Composites Part B: Engineering, 2018.

There has been abundant interest in using graphene material in biomedical sensor devices due to excellent biocompatibility, conductivity, cell growing properties, and surface behavior. This article reviews the use of graphene in miniaturized and biomedical sensors, and Agile R100 is noted as a cost-effective graphene biosensor for Zika virus detection.

Three-Dimensional Nanostructured Graphene: Synthesis and Energy, Environmental and Biomedical Applications

Synthetic Metals, 2017.

This review article covers areas in which graphene has been exploited for biomedical applications. Agile R100 is referenced as a potential graphene biosensor for diagnostics.

Switch-On the LAMP to Spot Zika

Annals of Translational Medicine, 2017.

Zika has been called a public health emergency of international concern. This paper describes detection of Zika virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of viral RNA. Additionally, it calls out NS1 antigen-capture point-of-care platforms such as Agile R100 as an alternative to nucleic-acid detection.

Scalable Graphene Aptasensors for Drug Quantification

AIP Advances, 2017.

Simpler and more rapid approaches for therapeutic drug-level monitoring are highly desirable to enable use at point-of-care. This paper describes a scalable approach for fabrication of arrays of GFET-based aptasensors and demonstrated sensitive (∼1 nM) and specific detection of the target tenofovir, with a process based on CVD-grown graphene and photolithographic processing, making it suitable for scale-up to industrial production. Nanomedical Diagnostics is referenced as the mass-manufacturer of GFET-based sensors.

Additional Relevant Publications

Real-Time Label-Free Direct Electronic Monitoring of Topoisomerase Enzyme Binding Kinetics on Graphene

American Chemical Society Nano, 2015.

Using an enzyme linked to monolayer graphene strips, the authors present a method for studying real-time detection of binding kinetics and enzyme-substrate activity down to picomolar concentrations.

Graphene Transistors with Multifunctional Polymer Brushes for Biosensing Applications

American Chemical Society Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2014.

Graphene transistor functionalized with acetylcholinesterase to detect the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in real time.

Scalable Production of Highly Sensitive Nanosensors Based on Graphene Functionalized with a Designed G Protein-Coupled Receptor

American Chemical Society Nano Letters, 2014.

A graphene-based sensor for opioids using a transistor functionalized with an opioid receptor, and example of how these transistors can be used to study any G protein-coupled receptor.

Single-Molecule Lysozyme Dynamics Monitored by an Electronic Circuit

Science, 2012.

Carbon nanotube transistor covalently attached to a lysozyme enzyme for electronic monitoring of substrate binding over long periods of time.

Origin of Enhanced Stem Cell Growth and Differentiation on Graphene and Graphene Oxide

American Chemical Society Nano, 2011.

Accelerating differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells by using graphene as a preconcentration platform for osteogenic inducers. Additionally, natural properties of graphene help to suppress or activate different cell lineage pathways.

The Control of Neural Cell-to-Cell Interactions Through Non-contact Electrical Field Stimulation Using Graphene Electrodes

Biomaterials, 2011.

This paper demonstrates control of neural intercellular connections using non-cytotoxic graphene electrical contacts.

Graphene and Nanowire Transistors for Cellular Interfaces and Electrical Recording

American Chemical Society Nano Letters, 2010.

Real time measurement of spontaneously beating embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes yields well-defined extracellular signals with high signal-to-noise ratio.

Electrolyte-Gated Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for Detecting pH and Protein Adsorption

Nano Letters, 2009.

Over 500 citations of this paper investigating electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) for electrical pH sensing.

Detection of Individual Gas Molecules Absorbed On Graphene

Nature Materials, 2007.

Over 4,500 citations of this seminal paper on graphene sensors.